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28-11-2021 · Base64 Encode And Decode With A Modern C++ Implementation. Base64 encoding is an easy binary-to-text encoding scheme. It’s used in various places: from encoding bytes for sending over the internet, to storing public/private keys in text format. In this post, we look at how to Base64 encode and decode in modern C++20!

28-11-2021

Base64 encoding is an easy binary-to-text encoding scheme. It’s used in various places: from encoding bytes for sending over the internet, to storing public/private keys in text format. In this post, we look at how to Base64 encode and decode in modern C 20!

## Understanding Base64 Encoding & Decoding

Base64 can be quite tricky to understand if you’re not used to working with binary data, but luckily for you, I posted a comprehensive tutorial on how Base64 encoding and decoding work.

Check out the post and make sure you understand the overall algorithm, as this post assumes you understand Base64 and how the bit operations help you transform binary into text. In addition, the pretty hand-drawn illustrations may help you visualise the whole process!

## Requirements For This Project

Before we get into the technical details, let’s look into what we need to build the modern C Base64 encoder.

Firstly, the code shown in this post contains C 20 features such as std::span, as well as C 17 features like if initializers and std::optional. For this reason, you need a fairly recent compiler and a not-so-old version of CMake (perhaps at least 3.16). From the compiler support cppreference page, you need at least the following compiler versions:

• GCC version 10.
• Clang version 7.
• MSCV version 19.26.

Finally, to build the entire project, you will need the Conan C package manager and Github to pull the code locally. There will be more on this in the following section about where to find the code.

In this section, we look at how to implement a safe Base64 encoder using a simple encoding table. Long story short, we consider three bytes each time, concatenate their values, and split them into four ASCII characters according to the encoding table – this is outlined in more detail in the aforementioned Base64 tutorial.

### Using Arrays To Store The Encoding Table

Ideally, once we’ve split the three bytes into four six-bit values, we need to convert these values into a Base64 character. For a six-bit value, the resulting character is the one at the position given by the six-bit value in the following Base64 character array:

\begin{align*}
&\texttt{A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,O,P,} \
&\texttt{Q,R,S,T,U,V,W,X,Y,Z,a,b,c,d,e,f,} \
&\texttt{g,h,i,j,k,l,m,n,o,p,q,r,s,t,u,v,} \
&\texttt{w,x,y,z,0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,+,/}
\end{align*}

For example, for the six-bit value \texttt, the character would be the one at position zero, or \texttt{"A"}. Likewise, the character for \texttt would be \texttt{"/"}.

But how can we represent the table above in C ? If you think about it, the table above is simply a contiguous array of characters, where each element is laid out as per the table. Without further ado, the following array represents the encoding table we outlined in this section.

std::array constexpr encode_table{
'A', 'B', 'C', 'D', 'E', 'F', 'G', 'H', 'I', 'J', 'K',
'L', 'M', 'N', 'O', 'P', 'Q', 'R', 'S', 'T', 'U', 'V',
'W', 'X', 'Y', 'Z', 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f', 'g',
'h', 'i', 'j', 'k', 'l', 'm', 'n', 'o', 'p', 'q', 'r',
's', 't', 'u', 'v', 'w', 'x', 'y', 'z', '0', '1', '2',
'3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9', '+', '/'};


You can see we have exactly 64 characters, and the order of the characters matches the encoding table we discussed previously – we will later use this array to convert the six-bit values to Base64 characters!

Finally, the code snippet above requires you to include the header.

### How To Encode A Full Byte-Triple

“Three is a magic number. It takes three legs to make a tripod or to make a table a table stand” – Similarly, it takes three characters to convert from binary to Base64, and three-character splits are fundamental to the algorithm.

For this reason, if we can encode a chunk of three bytes, we can encode an entire array of bytes using padding tricks we will see later.

std::array encode_triplet(std::uint8_t a, std::uint8_t b, std::uint8_t c)
{
std::uint32_t const concat_bits = (a << 16) | (b << 8) | c;

auto const b64_char1 = encode_table[(concat_bits >> 18) & 0b0011'1111];
auto const b64_char2 = encode_table[(concat_bits >> 12) & 0b0011'1111];
auto const b64_char3 = encode_table[(concat_bits >> 6) & 0b0011'1111];
auto const b64_char4 = encode_table[concat_bits & 0b0011'1111];
return {b64_char1, b64_char2, b64_char3, b64_char4};
}

Unsurprisingly, function encode_tripletin the code snippet above will do just what we expect: given three bytes represented by a, b, and c, it will return four Base64 characters.

For the purposes of this post, I chose std::uint8_t to represent a byte, and this definition can be found in the header . In addition, for concatenating the bytes in line 3, we use the type std::uint32_t as the results will be exactly 24-bits, so 32-bits should be enough to hold it.

#### Going From Bytes To Base64 Characters

As you should know by now, the overall goal of Base64 encoding is to transform some bytes into a string of characters contained in the encoding table. Furthermore, I mentioned that each resulting character is the equivalent offset of a value in the encoding table.

Let’s suppose that the variable concat_bytes in the snippet above is a 24-bit value, which we obtained from concatenating bytes a, b, and c from left to right. In fact, concat_values is actually a 32-bit value containing those three bytes concatenated, plus zeroes on the eight left-most bits.

Interestingly, how can we split that 24-bit value in concat_bytesinto four 6-bit values? To make the problem a bit simpler, let’s suppose you want the second 6-bit value.

auto const concat_bytes = ... ; // 24-bit long value
auto const second_six_bits = (concat_bits >> 6) & 0b0011'1111;

In the snippet above, the variable second_six_bits holds the second six-bit values, by firstly shifting all the bits of concat_bits to the right six times and masking the first six-bit values.

In more detail, the bit shift operation will put the bits \texttt{[11-17]} (inclusively) in the positions \texttt{[0-7]}. In addition, the masking with & 0b0011'1111 has the effect of only keeping the values in the first 6-bits, zeroing out all the other bits in the shift operation.

Essentially, these two operations simply store the second 6-bit value as an integer value in second_six_bits. Due to masking the first six-bits, the integer value will never be anything outside the range \texttt{[0, 63]}. This same technique is used to get the first, second, third, and fourth six-bit values in the 24-bit, so we can use them for the character offsets!

#### Converting A Six-Bit Bit Value To A Base64 Character

Being able to convert the three bytes into four six-bit values is half of the work, and the other half is simply turning each six-bit value into a Base64 character.

Interestingly, this is where the encode_table comes in! Long story short, the six-bit values represent the offset of the Base64 characters in the encoding table.

// get the six_bit value with the bit operations
auto const a_six_bit_value = ...;

// use the six_bit value as the character index
auto const base64_char = encoding_table[a_six_bit_value];

In the code snippet above, base64_char contains the character represented by the six-bit value. Needless to say, there’s nothing very interesting going on here, we are simply indexing into the encoding table array.

Importantly, the code above should be safe if a_six_bit_value is always in the range \texttt{[0, 63]}, because if it’s outside that range, you will be accessing invalid memory as the encoding table only has 64 characters!

Finally, this technique is used for getting all the four characters for every three bytes of the data to encode.

### What Happens When We Don’t Have Three-Bytes In The Input To The Base64 Encoder?

How long is a piece of string? Like strings, byte arrays can have any size, however, we do know some facts about these sizes:

• A byte array’s size could be exactly divisible by three such as 0, 3, and 333.
• The size of an array could be a multiple of three plus two remaining characters. For example, array sizes of 2, 11, or 554. Essentially, if we split byte arrays of these sizes into groups of three, there would be two remaining bytes at the end.
• Lastly, if the array’s length is a multiple of three plus one — such as 1, 10, 1000 — we would have one remaining character after partitioning the array into groups of three.

But how do we deal with the cases where we have remaining characters after the three-byte partition? Basically, we pad the last group (either two or one byte) with zeros, carry out the three-byte encoding, and pad the resulting Base64 string with = values. I’d highly recommend reading about these edge cases in my post on understanding Base64 encoding and decoding.

### Encoding The Remaining Two Bytes

Let’s assume that you partitioned your bytes into groups of three, but the final group only has two bytes in it. Ignoring the final incomplete partition, you encoded all of your perfect three-byte groups and appended them into the Base64 encoded string base64_result. How do we then encode the final, incomplete group of two bytes according to the Base64 specification?

Mathematically speaking, we can simply pass the two remaining bytes into the encode_triplet function, setting the last input character as a 0. Following that, we simply ignore the last character in the result, appending only the first three returned Base64 characters into base64_result, and finally, append a = to it as well.

std::uint8_t const final_byte1{0x98};
std::uint8_t const final_byte2{0x98};

auto const base64_chars = encode_triplet(final_byte1,
final_byte2,
0x00);

std::copy_n(begin(base64_chars),
3,
back_inserter(base64_result));
base64_result.push_back('=');

And just like that, we have encoded the last two-byte partition and added it to our result.

### Encoding The Remaining Single Byte

Hopefully, by now, you got the gist of this. Similarly to the two remaining bytes case, we simply pass the single remaining byte into encode_triplet, and the remaining byte arguments will both be 0.

std::uint8_t const final_byte{0x98};

auto const base64_chars = encode_triplet(final_byte1,
0x00,
0x00);

std::copy_n(begin(base64_chars),
2,
back_inserter(base64_result));
base64_result.push_back('=');
base64_result.push_back('=');

Another difference is that we now add an extra = padding character to the result.

## Decoding Base64 Strings In C

“Nothing is invented, for it’s written in nature first everything is copied and reused” – Me twisting a famous quote… But it’s true, most problems are just a different form of other problems. This is no different in Base64: decoding is just “encoding” Base64 characters into bytes. So the solution will be fairly similar to encoding.

It will all be clearer when we look at the decoding table. More precisely, we have the following problem: for a given Base64 character, what six-value did it originally have?

In this section, we present similar ideas to Base64 encoding, after all, it’s the same problem except we’re doing the opposite! Specifically, we will use a decoding table to get six-bit values for each character, and also bit-shift operations to reconstruct the original bytes.

### Decoding Base64 Strings: The End Game

Briefly speaking, Base64 decoding a valid string involves splitting the string into partitions of four Base64 characters. Following that, we transform each four-character partition into the original three bytes, and when we add all those bytes to an array in order, we get the decoded bytes.

Importantly, the method described in this section assumes that the input to the decoding function is always valid, but this is not always the case. For this reason, we must always check that the input string is a valid Base64 string, and you can see this in the full code:

• Check that the length of the string to decode is always a multiple of 4.
• All characters in the input string need to be valid Base64 characters, it cannot contain characters that aren’t in the encode_table array.
• Last but not least, the last four-character group may contain at most two equal padding signs at the end.

### Using A Decoding Table To Find Six-Bit Values For a Character

If we want to reconstruct the original bytes for the string \texttt, we need to get the six-bit value for the character \texttt, which would be \text.

std::array constexpr decode_table{
0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64,
0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64,
0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x3E, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x3F, 0x34, 0x35, 0x36, 0x37, 0x38, 0x39, 0x3A, 0x3B, 0x3C,
0x3D, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x00, 0x01, 0x02, 0x03, 0x04, 0x05, 0x06, 0x07, 0x08, 0x09, 0x0A,
0x0B, 0x0C, 0x0D, 0x0E, 0x0F, 0x10, 0x11, 0x12, 0x13, 0x14, 0x15, 0x16, 0x17, 0x18, 0x19, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64,
0x64, 0x64, 0x1A, 0x1B, 0x1C, 0x1D, 0x1E, 0x1F, 0x20, 0x21, 0x22, 0x23, 0x24, 0x25, 0x26, 0x27, 0x28, 0x29, 0x2A,
0x2B, 0x2C, 0x2D, 0x2E, 0x2F, 0x30, 0x31, 0x32, 0x33, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64, 0x64};


In the snipped above, the decode_table byte-array solves that problem. If you have a single valid Base64 character, such as \texttt, then using that character as the index to the array will give you the original six-bit value.

As an example, decode_table['A'] will return 0x00. Similarly, using other characters as the index for the decode_table array gives you the original six-bit offset of the encoded character.

### Decoding Four Base64 Characters With No Padding

Assuming we have a perfectly valid four-character partition of a Base64 string, the following function decode_quad decodes the four characters given as inputs.

std::array decode_quad(char a, char b, char c, char d)
{
std::uint32_t const concat_bytes =
(decode_table[a] << 18) | (decode_table[b] << 12) |
(decode_table[c] << 6) | decode_table[d];

std::uint8_t const byte1 = (concat_bytes >> 16) & 0b1111'1111;
std::uint8_t const byte2 = (concat_bytes >> 8) & 0b1111'1111;
std::uint8_t const byte3 = concat_bytes & 0b1111'1111;
return {byte1, byte2, byte3};
}


For example, for the four-characters \texttt, calling decode_quad('A', 'A', 'A', 'B') would return the vector containing {0x00, 0x00, 0x01}.

How is this achieved? Mostly with the decode_table. Essentially, we get the original six-bit values for each character and place each value in their respective original place in a 32-bit integer. Although we don’t use all of the 32-bits, the 24 least significant bits will contain the original concatenated bytes (refer to the encoding section).

Finally, the original three bytes are acquired by getting the first eight bits, then the second and third eight bits from the concatenated six-bit values.

Figuring out how this is all achieved with bit-shift and masking operations is left as an exercise to the reader ~~ I’ve always wanted to say this 🙂

### What If The Last Group Of Characters Has Equal (=) Padding Characters?

Ideally, you need to iterate over each partition of four characters, decode each of them and append every three bytes returned by decode_quadto a byte array. However, this only works if the encoded string has no padding at the end of it.

For the decoding to work with any valid Base64 string, we would need to do something special to the last partition of four characters if they have padding:

• If the partition only has one = (equal) sign at the end, we simply call decode_quad(a, b, c, 'A') with a, b, and c as the first, second and third characters of the group, respectively. Importantly, we only append the first two bytes returned from this call to the result byte-array.
• If the parition has two = (equal) signs at the end, we call decode_quad(a, b, 'A', 'A') where ‘a’ and ‘b’ are the first and second characters of the last parition. Similarly, we only append the first character returned from the call to the return byte-array.

Without baffling too much, you can see how this is done in the full code on Github. The function in question here is base64::decode.

## Base64 C Encoder And Decoder On Github

Without further ado, you can view all the code for the Base64 encoder in this Git repository. If you want to build it, follow the instructions in the README.md file.

Most of the code was shown and explained in this post, but you can see the whole picture in the Github repository. More precisely, the two main functions are base64pp::encode(...)and base64pp::decode(...) – the input checking and the overall logic for encoding and decoding are here.

Moreover, here’s an overview of the project structure:

• “base64pp/include/base64pp/base64pp.h” is the header file declaring the base64pp::encode and base64pp::decode functions.
• “base64pp/base64pp.cpp” defines the encoding and decoding functions, all the program logic can be found in this file.
• “base64pp/CMakeLists.txt” is the CMake file that defines the base64pp library.
• “base64pp/tests/base64pp_tests.cpp” defines the unit tests for the encoder and decoder.
• “tests/CMakeLists.txt” defines the test executable base64pp_tests, which uses GTests as the unit test framework.

If you’re not quite comfortable with CMake, I recommend checking out my posts on how to create libraries with CMake and adding include directories to targets with CMake.

## What’s The Point Of This Post? Aren’t There Many Base64 Encoders Out There?

I decided to write this post after being frustrated with the quality of some Base64 encoders out there. For example, Googling “C Base64 Encoder” will either land you on a StackOverflow thread or this Github Base64 encoding gist.

Although I have nothing against the writers of the demo code in those threads, both the top answers on Google are very bad examples of Base64 encoding in C . Not only are the snippets unmaintainable due to poor readability, but I’ve also spotted several serious issues with the top examples:

• C undefined behaviour use, meaning that certain features these exmaples rely on aren’t actually guaranteed by the standard.
• Buffer overflows with certain input data, which can cause serious security-related issues.
• Lack of input sanity checks, allowing users to, for example, decode any invalid string.
• Very difficult to reason about the code as the examples seem to focus on solving the problem with the least number of lines. This isn’t always a good idea and it hurts the readibility of the code.

What’s worse is that I’ve seen these examples been copied and pasted into places they should never have. Very few of the examples I see on the first page of Google are actually production-worthy.

### Stick To Already Tried-And-Tested Libraries Whenever Possible

Ideally, if there’s is a library that provides the functionality you need, then use it instead of reinventing the wheel! Similarly, if your project requires a Base64 encoder/decoder, your best bet is to use a popular library like OpenSSL to do that work.

Although third-party libraries can also have issues, it’s less likely that a widely tested and used library will do a worse job than the code you implement.

Knowing how it works under the hood is a bonus – in case you do spot issues with popular open-source libraries, you can fix it yourself! In fact, one of the projects I’ve worked with used an old version of OpenSSL where the decoding function was crashing; turns out it wasn’t properly checking invalid inputs and crashing on such inputs!

Have I missed anything? Have you noticed any errors or typos? Do you have useful feedback? Feel free to comment below!

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01-05-2022

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18-10-2021 · So, 72 inches is equal to 6 feet and 6 feet is equal to 2 yards. How many 16 feet is 32 inches? So, 32 feet in inches = 32 times 0.025400000000000002 = 384 inches, exactly. How many 16 feet is 12 inches? 12 feet equals 144 inches. How tall are you if your 68 inches? A person who is 68 inches tall means they are 5 ft 8 inches or 172.72 cm tall.

18-10-2021

Therefore, to get 9 ft 9 in inches or 9 foot 9 inches in inches we have to multiply 9 with 12 and add 9. Now you know how to convert 9 ft 9 to inch and that nine feet nine inches = 117 inches.

although, How many inches is 9 ft 6 inches?

Now you know how to convert 9 ft 6 to inch and that nine feet six inches = 114 inches.

equally important, How many inches is 5’9 feet?

Five feet, 9 inches. or 5’9, is equivalent to 69 inches. Since 1 foot unit has exactly 12 inches, 5 feet equals 60 inches. Add 9 inches to 60, and you’ll have 69 inches in total.

otherwise What is 5 ft in inches?

Feet to inches conversion table

Feet (ft) Inches (“)
3 ft 36 ″
4 ft 48 ″
5 ft 60 ″
6 ft 72 ″

How many inches are in 2 yards? Yards to Inches table

Yards Inches
0
yd
0.00 in
1
yd
36.00 in
2 yd 72.00 in
3
yd
108.00 in

Jul 22, 2018

16 Related Questions Answers Found
• How many 16 feet is 10 inches?
• Is being 5’9 tall for a girl?
• What height is 5ft 9?
• What is the meter of 5 9?
• How many inches tall is 4 11?
• How many inches is 5 ft 3?
• How many inches are you if you are 4 11?
• Is 2 yards equal to 6 feet?
• Which is bigger yards or inches?
• Which is more 71 inches or 2 yards?
• How many 16 feet is 32 inches?
• How many 16 feet is 12 inches?
• How tall are you if your 68 inches?
• Is being 5’11 tall for a girl?
• What height is the most attractive?
• Is being 5’10 tall for a girl?
• Is 5’9 a good height for a guy?
• Is 5 ft 10 a good height?
• Is 5ft 9 tall for a 13 year old boy?

## How many 16 feet is 10 inches?

FAQs on feet to inches

So, 10 feet in inches = 10 times 0.025400000000000002 = 120 inches, exactly.

## Is being 5’9 tall for a girl?

5′9 is certainly taller than average for a girl, but I wouldn’t call it “tall.” 5′9 is about the minimum height to be a fashion model for a girl. Tall Club International sets the minimum cutoff at 5′10 for a girl.

## What height is 5ft 9?

Conversion Chart

Feet and Inches Centimeters
5 feet 9 inches 175.26 cm
5 feet 10 inches 177.8 cm
5 feet 11 inches 180.34 cm
6 feet 0 inches 182.88 cm

## What is the meter of 5 9?

Height Calculator

How big is 5’9 in other units?
cm: 175.26 centimeters
in: 69 inches
m: 1.7526 meters
mm: 1752.6 millimeters

## How many inches tall is 4 11?

Height Calculator

How big is 4’11 in other units?
cm: 149.86 centimeters
in: 59 inches
m: 1.4986 meters
mm: 1498.6 millimeters

## How many inches is 5 ft 3?

This gives you 63 total inches.

## How many inches are you if you are 4 11?

Now you know how to convert 4 ft 11 to inch and that four feet eleven inches = 59 inches.

## Is 2 yards equal to 6 feet?

2 yards equals 6 feet because 2×3=6 or 72 inches because 6×12 equals 72.

## Which is bigger yards or inches?

A yard is a unit of length equal to 3 feet or exactly 0.9144 meters. An inch is a unit of length equal to exactly 2.54 centimeters. There are 12 inches in a foot, and 36 inches in a yard.

## Which is more 71 inches or 2 yards?

Explanation: Neither is greater than the other. 12 inches = 1 foot and 3 feet = 1 yard. So, 72 inches is equal to 6 feet and 6 feet is equal to 2 yards.

## How many 16 feet is 32 inches?

So, 32 feet in inches = 32 times 0.025400000000000002 = 384 inches, exactly.

## How many 16 feet is 12 inches?

12 feet equals 144 inches.

## How tall are you if your 68 inches?

A person who is 68 inches tall means they are 5 ft 8 inches or 172.72 cm tall.

## Is being 5’11 tall for a girl?

Whether you decide to call it “short” is solely up to you. But in general, five-eleven is only ever considered tall if it’s a girl who’s that height and even then, it’s only “tall for a girl.”

## What height is the most attractive?

Well, fellas, worry no more, because a new study has revealed 5ft 8in is the ideal height for a man. Dating app Badoo has revealed the most right-swiped heights based on their users aged 18 to 30.

## Is being 5’10 tall for a girl?

A woman who is 5′10″ is considered tall. The average height of women in North America and Britain is 5′ 4 1/2″. Tall women are certainly not common in North America.

## Is 5’9 a good height for a guy?

5′9 is a very good height for a guy, it’s perfectly average, very round height, taller than most girls and not short at all, in fact, it’s really far away from short, it’s closer to 6ft than 5′5, think about that.

## Is 5 ft 10 a good height?

5′10 is generally speaking above average in most countries, it’s a very good height for a guy, you don’t stand out for being tall, but you certainly are at a confortable height range, close to 5′11 which is, by definition, the beginning of “tall” or “tallish”, girls will definitely consider you tall.

## Is 5ft 9 tall for a 13 year old boy?

Based on that curve, he should reach an adult height between 5’9″ or 5’10” (69-70 inches). … Using the same example of the 50th percentile, a 13-year-old boy who weighs just over 100 lbs can expect to weigh roughly 155 by the time he’s an adult, if he continues developing at an average pace.

28-12-2021 · Select one or more columns that you wish to resize. To select all columns, press Ctrl + A or click the Select All button. On the Home tab, in the Cells group, click Format > Column Width. In the Column width box, type the desired number, and click OK. How do I make Excel Cells expand to fit text automatically shortcuts? AutoFit Rows and Columns Using a Keyboard Shortcut

28-12-2021

AutoFit column width and row height using a keyboard shortcut

1. To AutoFit column width: Alt H, then O, and then I.
2. To AutoFit row height: Alt H, then O, and then A.

## How do you adjust column width in Excel?

Resize columns

1. Select a column or a range of columns.
2. On the Home tab, in the Cells group, select Format > Column Width.
3. Type the column width and select OK.

## What is the quick way to resize the column width?

Select one or more columns that you wish to resize. To select all columns, press Ctrl A or click the Select All button. On the Home tab, in the Cells group, click Format > Column Width. In the Column width box, type the desired number, and click OK.

## How do I make Excel Cells expand to fit text automatically shortcuts?

AutoFit Rows and Columns Using a Keyboard Shortcut

1. Select the row/column that you want to autofit.
2. Use the keyboard shortcut with keys in succession. For example, if you’re using the shortcut ALT H O I, press the ALT key, then the H key, and so on (in succession).

## How do you adjust column widths to show labels?

To quickly set the column width to display everything, double-click the column separator. To shrink the contents of a cell so that they fit in the current column width: In Excel 2016 for Mac, on the Home tab, click the Format button, click Format Cells, and then select Shrink to Fit.

## Where is Shrink to fit in Excel?

Go to the Alignment tab of the Format Cells dialog box. Shrink to fit is directly below Wrap text. Enabling Shrink to fit will automatically reduce the font size in a cell so that the text fits without wrapping. We can see that the font in several cells is now smaller.

## How do you resize a column to best fit?

Resize a column or table automatically with AutoFit

1. Select your table.
2. On the Layout tab, in the Cell Size group, click AutoFit.
3. Do one of the following. To adjust column width automatically, click AutoFit Contents. To adjust table width automatically, click AutoFit Window.

## How do I make Excel cells the same width and height?

Under the Home tab, select ‘Format‘ (from the Cells group). Select ‘Column Width’ and enter the size to which you want to set all the columns in the small ‘Column Width’ window that appears. Set the row height for the selected cells.

## How do I change the size of cells without changing the whole column?

Generally, every cell in a row or column has the same size, so you can’t adjust the size of a cell individually without affecting the others in its same row or column. You can merge adjacent cells to create larger compound cells, however, and you can set rows and columns to automatically adjust to fit text.

## How do you make a column 200 pixels wide in Excel?

To set column width with a specific measurement:

1. Select the columns you want to modify.
2. Click the Format command on the Home tab. The format drop-down menu appears.
3. Select Column Width. Increasing the column width.
4. The Column Width dialog box appears. Enter a specific measurement.
5. Click OK.

## Is column width in Excel in pixels?

Excel begins with a default width of 8 characters and translates this into a given number of pixels, depending on the Normal style font. It then rounds this number up to the nearest multiple of 8 pixels, so that scrolling across columns and rows is faster.

## What is Ctrl D in Excel?

Ctrl D in Excel and Google Sheets
In Microsoft Excel and Google Sheets, pressing Ctrl D fills and overwrites a cell(s) with the contents of the cell above it in a column. To fill the entire column with the contents of the upper cell, press Ctrl Shift Down to select all cells below, and then press Ctrl D .

## How do I make everything fit in Excel?

Shrink a worksheet to fit on one page
Select the Page tab in the Page Setup dialog box. Select Fit to under Scaling. To fit your document to print on one page, choose 1 page(s) wide by 1 tall in the Fit to boxes. Note: Excel will shrink your data to fit on the number of pages specified.

## How do I fit a large amount of text in Excel?

Wrap text automatically
On the Home tab, in the Alignment group, click Wrap Text. (On Excel for desktop, you can also select the cell, and then press Alt H W.) Notes: Data in the cell wraps to fit the column width, so if you change the column width, data wrapping adjusts automatically.

## What does Alt Hoi do?

Alt,H,O,A is the keyboard shortcut to AutoFit Row Height. It doesn’t work exactly the same as column width, and will only adjust the row height to the tallest cell in the entire row.

## What does Alt u mean?

Alt U is a keyboard shortcut most often used to change text to uppercase.Computer keyboard shortcuts.

## What are the shortcuts in Excel?

Microsoft Excel keyboard shortcuts

• Ctrl N: To create a new workbook.
• Ctrl O: To open a saved workbook.
• Ctrl S: To save a workbook.
• Ctrl A: To select all the contents in a workbook.
• Ctrl B: To turn highlighted cells bold.
• Ctrl C: To copy cells that are highlighted.
• Ctrl D:

## How can you resize the width of a column by selecting the button in the Table group?

You can resize the width of a column by selecting the Properties button in the Table group.

## How do I resize a table in Excel?

You can use the Resize command in Excel to add rows and columns to a table:

1. Click anywhere in the table, and the Table Tools option appears.
2. Click Design > Resize Table.
3. Select the entire range of cells you want your table to include, starting with the upper-leftmost cell.

## How do I make all columns the same width in sheets?

How to Set All Google Sheets Columns to the Same Width

1. Open your spreadsheet.
2. Click on the first column letter, hold down Shift, then click on the last column letter.
3. Right click on a selected cell and choose Resize columns.
4. Enter the column width and click OK.

## How do you resize a column without changing columns widths?

To resize a column without affecting other columns, move the gray column markers on the ruler instead of dragging cell edges. Works like a charm.

17-04-2022 · Old Black And White Photo To Color Online . Convert black and white photo | Colorize Image Free Online … Just upload your images and turn your black and white images into color for free, with embedded watermarks. The quick and easy way to colorize a black and white image. Thanks to our image editing experts, you don’t need to do anything.

17-04-2022

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20-12-2021 · For Highlights, change this to white, then select black for the Shadows. And, just like that, you’re able to make an image black and white through the Duotone feature. Other than turning pictures black and white, you can also use Duotone for changing the colors of an uploaded image.

20-12-2021

Now that we’re about to enter a new year with 2022 fast approaching, it’s important to treasure the memories we’ve had.

Hence, most of us keep galleries and galleries of photos — printed and digital — to remind us of what has been.

But, if you want to add more nostalgia to your photos, converting your images to black and white’s the way to go.

And, if you’re using Canva, you don’t have to worry one teeny bit about how you’ll achieve this incredible effect.

First, you can drag the saturation slider to -100. You can also add a Greyscale or Street filter to achieve the black-and-white effect. You can also use the Duotone effect to turn pictures and images black and white by changing the Highlights into white and the Shadows into black.

## Creating Black-and-White Images and Pictures in Canva: 3 Nifty Methods to Choose From

If you’ve been paying attention earlier, there are 3 options for converting a full-color photo into a black-and-white one.

So, sit back and continue reading for you to add another Canva photo editing technique to your arsenal.

### Lower Photo Saturation aka Desaturation

Step 1: Once you’re on the editor page, select a photo you’d like to use for your design.

You can opt to import images through the Uploads tab or select a stock photo from the Photos tab.

Step 2: Click and drag the selected image to make it appear on the canvas.

Step 3: Tap the photo to activate the photo editing toolbar. Then, head to the Edit image tab and click it.

Step 4: On the left panel menu, scroll down until you see the Adjust panel. Click the See all option to view all the Adjustment settings available.

Step 5: From the 13 adjustment sliders you’ll see, tap on the slider of the Saturation panel.

Drag the slider to -100. If you’re satisfied with the look of the image, leave it as is and carry on with your other editing tasks for your project.

Step 6: If, however, you want to give your image more depth, you can tweak its contrast and brightness as well.

In the same adjustment menu, drag the Contrast and Brightness sliders to make your photo have stronger silhouettes and starker lines.

There’s no one-click rule here. You can just fiddle with the sliders until you see the photo in the effect that you want to see it in.

But, increasing the brightness and lowering the contrast levels of the photo gives a more aged appearance.

If you increase the contrast and lower the brightness, you’ll end up making the background more obscure.

### Add the Greyscale or Street Filter

Step 1: Select a picture either by browsing through stock images in the Photos tab or by uploading pictures through the Uploads tab.

Step 2: Click and drag the image you’ll use to the blank canvas. Then, resize and adjust its positioning accordingly.

Step 3: Tap on the photo once to activate the editor toolbar. Then, select the Edit image button next.

Step 4: From the editing options that appear in the menu, scroll down until you see the Filters category. Tap the See all option to view all the filters available.

Step 5: Scroll down until you see the Greyscale filter. Click on it.

Yet, if you prefer a stronger black-and-white effect, you can opt to use the Street filter instead.

And, with that single click, you’ve already transformed a previously full-color photo into a black-and-white one.

### Use the Duotone Effect

Step 1: Select a photo either from Canva’s Photos gallery or upload images through the Uploads tab on the left-side menu of the editor page.

Whatever image you choose to use, click and drag it towards the canvas, resize, and adjust its positioning accordingly.

Then, tap on the photo once to activate the editor toolbar.

Step 2: Once the editor toolbar’s activated, tap on the Edit image button. You’ll then see the left-side menu appear.

Scroll down until you see the Duotone effect. Tap on whatever Duotone color you choose.

If you haven’t installed the Duotone photo effect on your menu, head to the More tab and scroll down until you see the Duotone option.

Click on it, tap the Install button so Canva will add it to your list of photo effects you can use.

Step 3: Once the Duotone effect’s applied to your photo, tap on the Adjust menu found in the middle of the Duotone color you selected.

Step 4: In the Duotone settings menu, change the Highlights and Shadows colors used.

For Highlights, change this to white, then select black for the Shadows.

And, just like that, you’re able to make an image black and white through the Duotone feature.

Other than turning pictures black and white, you can also use Duotone for changing the colors of an uploaded image.

Perhaps, from among the 3 options presented, you’ll find the Greyscale filter to be the simplest one to use.

But, if you’re vying for more freestyle and creative way of turning your photos into black and white, lowering the saturation’s the way to go.

Whatever option you use, the important thing is you convert your images and pictures into black and white.

And that’s just one of the reasons making Canva so great for both newbie and expert graphic designers!

## Frequently Asked Questions about How to Make Images and Pictures Black and White in Canva

### Is there a hex code that I can copy and paste to apply the same black and white filter for other photos?

Like the color hex codes, there are filter hex codes you can use as well. You can find the filter hex code below the Adjustment settings menu. Just save this hex code somewhere so you can quickly paste it into the filter code box the next time you’ll need it.

### How do I remove the filter I applied on a photo if I want to make further adjustments?

To remove a photo filter, tap on the picture before clicking the Edit Image button. Head to the Filters section, and in the succeeding menu that appears, select the None tile. This will automatically remove the filter you added to your image.

### Are there photo filters exclusive to Canva Pro users?

Unlike the background remover, photo filters in Canva can be used by everyone regardless of whether they’re using the Free or Pro account of the tool.

09-02-2022 · Answer to question how to get square footage of a room is to multiply the ceiling height by the entire wall length to get the total square feet of the wall (s). How many square feet is a 12×12 wall? A room measuring 12 feet wide by 12 feet long has a square footage of 144 square feet. How do you find the area of a rectangular room?

09-02-2022

Wall Square Footage Calculator is a tool for calculating the square footage of a wall. Have you ever needed help calculating the square footage of a wall? You didn’t have anyone to contact? Don’t worry, this calculator is for you.

Here you have an explanation for all the necessary definitions and formulas for your task. See these related calculators in the construction section, such as Retaining Wall Calculator, Framing, or Siding Calculator, all needed for different wall projects and measures.

Is it better to renovate or decorate? We understand how challenging and frustrating it may be. That’s why, no matter what wall covering you choose, we built this calculator to assist you with everything you need. Follow the steps in our article to learn how to calculate the values, as well as some recommendations and suggestions for improving the design of your wall.

## Wall Area Calculation Formulas

So, how can we figure out how many square feet a wall has? The formula is straightforward:

walls\ square\ footage= total\ length\ of\ the\ walls \times ceiling\ height

But how can you figure out how many square feet a wall with doors and windows is?

corrected\ wall\ square\ footage = wall\ square\ footage - windows\ area \times number\ of\ windows - door\ area \times number\ of\ doors

You must be wondering how to measure the square footage of the wall. Don’t worry, and it’s no less difficult, all you need is the total length of the wall multiplied by the height of the ceiling:

walls\ square\ footage = total\ length\ of\ the\ walls\ \times ceiling\ height

However, before calculating, either calculate with the help of a calculator or pay attention to several factors:

• begin by sketching a floor plan of your room/house, making measuring and storing data much easier;
• always take the correct tools, such as a yardstick or a steel tape measure;
• measure the length of your walls, including doors and windows, and the width of your doors and windows;
• measure your walls from floor to ceiling to determine their height. The length of a fallen ceiling or moldings is not included (coving) and
• our advice is to double check the length, height and width measurements.

You are not even aware of how easy is this calculator. Just follow our steps:

• Choose the shape of your room:
1. other – enter the total measured length of all the walls;
2. rectangle – enter the lengths of two walls that touch the same corner;
3. square – enter the length of one wall.
• Enter the height of your ceiling:
1. Remember to think about a lowered ceiling if you’re planning on having one. It might be crucial when calculating square footage.
• Calculate the number of doors in your room:
1. Our typical door measures 21 ft2 (1.95 m2) in size.
2. Multiply the number of doors by two for double doors.
• Calculate the number of windows in your room:
1. Our normal window is 12 square feet (1.11 square meters).
2. Type 0 if your room doesn’t have any windows.
• The result for your wall has arrived!

We will now show you one example to better understand. We will take simple numbers so that you can remember them more easily. As we said:

• we choose the shape (for our example it is square);
• then enter the height of the wall (5 m);
• ceiling height (7 m);
• number of doors (4);
• number of windows (3);
• and the result is printed by {wall\ footage}=128.85 \;m^2

## FAQ

How to calculate the square footage of a wall?

Answer to question how to get square footage of a room is to multiply the ceiling height by the entire wall length to get the total square feet of the wall(s).

How many square feet is a 12×12 wall?

A room measuring 12 feet wide by 12 feet long has a square footage of 144 square feet.

How many sq ft is 18×18?

18 \times 18 = 324 sq ft.

15-12-2021 · The difference between a walked mile and a swam mile is actually vast, a swam mile equates to 1650 yards whilst a ran/walked mile is equal to 1760 yards. The reason for this is that it is the closest distance to the Olympic swimming event of 1500 meters which ensures that swimmers are in peak condition for this event and are more able to ...

15-12-2021

If you’ve ever been involved in competitive sports, you’ll know how much emphasis is placed on measurements. As such, you may have wondered “how many yards are actually in a swimming mile?”.

The difference between a walked mile and a swam mile is actually vast, a swam mile equates to 1650 yards whilst a ran/walked mile is equal to 1760 yards.

The reason for this is that it is the closest distance to the Olympic swimming event of 1500 meters which ensures that swimmers are in peak condition for this event and are more able to measure their abilities with accuracy.

The vast majority of swimmers and swimming coaches will consider a mile as being equivalent to 1650 yards and this is also dependent on the type of pool that you are swimming in.

This is because the majority of swimmers will be training in yard-pools, regardless of whether they are swimming in the short or long course season.

Scientists would probably always state that a mile is a mile and reference the standard measurement of 1760 yards. Friends and family members may think that you have gone insane! However, competitive swimmings will swear by the notion that a mile is equivalent to 1650 yards.

As mentioned, this is because it is easier to equate this measurement to the traditional 1500 meter swimming race amongst other competitive swimming events.

However, if you are a regular swimmer who is just swimming as a hobby or a means of keeping fit, then you should probably measure your mileage by the standardised definition (1760 yards).

This will equate to approximately 70 lengths (if you are swimming in a 25 yard pool) or 66 lengths if you are swimming in a 25 meter pool. If your pool is a large 50 meter one, then you will only need to swim 33 lengths in order to complete a mile.

If you are an open water swimmer and you are lucky enough to train in a large lap pool during your weekly esterase, then you will also be able to follow the guidelines above to ensure that your fitness is built up on the basis of the miles that you wish to swim.

If you’re not the biggest fan of counting laps, then you should definitely invest in some goggles that measure your distance whilst you’re swimming.

A suggested pair of goggles to purchase are the FORM Smart Swim Goggles that can be purchased for around 0 on Amazon! These goggles have been well received by both competitive swimmings and open water swimmers and the outstanding reviews speak for themselves!

Another accessory that is perfect for tracking your progress underwater is the DoSmarter Fitness Watch that is available for purchase on Amazon for approximately .

This watch is able to be measured during any water related activities and can also be used during your other means of exercise making it a well-worthy investment.

This FItness Tracker is also available to purchase on Amazon for only and is definitely a good investment. Not only is this product inexpensive, it is able to be used during any water related activities without breaking the bank by purchasing an expensive version.

It has a four star rating on amazon and has been reviewed nearly 4000 times which proves that it is an effective means of measuring your progress.

The ELEXUS Smart Watch Fitness Tracker is also a reputable option and is reasonably priced at .98. This watch is fully water resistant and has a large capacity for battery life.

Whilst it shouldn’t be used in hot baths or saunas, it is able to be used in swimming pools and has a usage time of 7-10 days without charging!

Arguably, the best option to measure your water-based progress is the SoundPEATS Smart Watch. This product has also been reviewed nearly 4000 times on Amazon and only costs .99 to purchase.

It boats a super long battery life which means that you will not need to fear it dying during your extensive laps!

And after a full charge of 2 hours, it will last for approximately 10 days, ensuring that your daily swimming practice is not interrupted and that you can measure your miles effectively.

If your children are getting into swimming and want to become competitive swimmers, then the BIGGERFIVE Vigor Kids Fitness Tracker is the perfect choice. It comes in four colors, including pink, purple, blue and black and it is fully waterproof.

The reviews are mostly favorable and thus, your children will be able to train and enjoy your leisure time whilst monitoring their athleticism and progress.

An alternative watch that can be used for children who want to become competitive swimmers, is the Inspiratek Kids Fitness Tracker. This watch is only .95 and boasts a high-level waterproofing ability.

It also has a 4.3 out of 5 star rating on Amazon at present and the reviews are mostly favorable, making this a great choice for aspiring little athletes!

The Fitpolo Smart Watch is arguably one of the best looking products on the market, it’s slender black design makes it stand out as a waterproof watch to invest in. It boasts a long battery life and is easily able to be adjusted to suit your wrist size.

It is priced at .99 and has received over 1000 ratings on Amazon with the majority of these being 5 star reviews.

There are numerous waterproof products like waterproof fitness watches or goggles that will enable you to track your mileage effectively without needing to resort to old-school methods of measurement.

However, it is always good to know how many yards make up a swimming mile in order to be able to track your progress effectively and condense it easily when discussing with friends or trainers alike.

These products have become undoubtedly more popular in recent years as athletes and regular swimmers like to showcase their achievements via social media and these waterproof tracking accessories allow for an easy means of tracking your progress and proving your abilities!

These products have also been proven to increase efficiency as you are able to meet and beat any target that you set, whilst working towards personal aims and goals that only enhance your body’s capabilities, improving your mental health by proxy.

Any competitive swimmer knows that maintaining the best mindset is the only way to ensure that you stand the best chance of winning and/or achieving your personal best and these products will enable you to swim miles without continually having to think about measurements and keep track of your progress as this can be off-putting, distracting and frustrating if you are not someone who is prone to rigorous tracking and organisation.

This is especially important when it comes to the differential nature of competitive sports and these accessories will enable you to always have a fixed reference point with regards to your personal and professional progress.

## Why Is A Swimming Mile 1650 Yards?

If you take a look at the history of the Olympics and old Olympic records, you will discover that swimming was introduced to the Olympic Games in 1896. It was measured in yards from 1904 at the Olympic Games that were held in St. Louis.

These games didn’t include a ‘mile swim’ but this is because the swimming competitions took place in open water during this time as opposed to

50m swimming pools! As the mid-stages of the 20th century took place, swimming pools were being built in 55 yard distances in the western countries including the United Kingdom, USA and Australia as they were using the imperial system of measurements.

These pools were created to make swimming races easier to measure and manage as races could then be divided up into half-mile swims (16 lengths) or a full mile swim (32 lengths).

However, in 1965 the Amateur Athletic Union decided to change yard swimming to meter swimming in order to better prepare athletes for the demands of the Olympic Games (which used only 50 meter swimming pools at this point.)

The USA decided to follow suit and switch to 50 meter pools for long course swimming events and 25 yard pools for short course swimming.

In the modern day, swimming is still split into two seasons, with the longer course swimming typically taking place during the summer months and short course swimming taking place during the winter period.

Today, the 1500 meter freestyle event is one of the main events of the Olympic Games and after the United States had changed their pools to 50 meters for long course swimming, they needed to ensure that their athletes weren’t at a disadvantage during the short course swimming season when travelling to International events.

For this reason, the 1650 yard freestyle event was created, as this is the closest equivalent distance to the 1500 meter swimming race and incorporated the 25 yard pool measurements for short course swimming.

As such, the Amateur Athletic Union replaced the typically regarded 1760 yard mile swim with a modernised, more convenient version and as more people began to refer to the 1650 yard freestyle as a ‘mile swim’, people’s perceptions began to change, hence why it is widely considered to be a mile swim until this day.

To conclude, a swimming mile is the equivalent of 1650 yards for competitive swimmers and 1760 yards for regular swimmers. Of course, you can switch up between the two measurements if you wish to, irrespective of whether you are a competitive swimmer yourself.

To summarize, if you wish to train for swimming a scientific mile, then you should swim approximately 70 lengths in a 25 yard pool or 66 lengths in a 25 meter pool. This is reduced to 33 lengths in a larger, competitive pool.

The 1650 yard swimming event is widely known as the mile swim, despite being approximately 110 yards short, because the USA wanted to better prepare its athletes for the 1500 meter freestyle event, which is one of the main events at any international long course swimming competitions including the world renowned Olympic Games.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q5kZ6EPKt4s
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15-12-2021 · Similarly, a quarter of a mile is 440 yards. Using a metric conversion calculator is an easy way to convert miles and yards. Generally, one mile is about five thousand feet long. A quarter of a mile is 440 yards. When converting a mile to yards, remember that a quarter of a mile is equal to four hundred yards.

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The distance between two points is measured in yards. One yard is equal to three feet and six inches. The origin of the yard as a unit is unknown, but it is thought to be an English unit that preceded imperial units. The word “yard” comes from the Old English word “gerd” and may have been related to the measurement of the waist circumference. However, the term itself is derived from the Roman numeral’mile’.

There are several ways to convert the length of a mile. The first method involves multiplying the length of the mile by its width. A quarter mile is equal to 440 yards. Both the imperial and United States Customary systems use yards as a length unit. There are also conversion tables available online for all the length units. The metric system uses the metric system. In addition to feet, meters, and yards are also interchangeable.

Yards are one unit of length, but the term mile can be confusing. A yard is a measurement of length and is a commonly used measurement. The American customary unit of length is a mile, which is equivalent to 1,760 feet or 5,280 feet. In other countries, miles are also referred to as yards, with one yard equaling 0.62137 miles. You can also refer to the nautical mile as a nautical mile.

## Mile is seventeen hundred sixty feet or five thousand yards

The metric system uses a different length measurement than the imperial system. A mile is seventeen hundred sixty feet or five thousand yards. A yard is one-tenth of a mile. So, when you measure your clothing, it is equivalent to 36 inches. Similarly, a quarter of a mile is 440 yards. Using a metric conversion calculator is an easy way to convert miles and yards.

Generally, one mile is about five thousand feet long. A quarter of a mile is 440 yards. When converting a mile to yards, remember that a quarter of a mile is equal to four hundred yards. This is a common error when converting between different lengths. The US uses this standard, and it is a useful resource for determining how many feet are in a quarter of a mile.

For example, a half mile is 460 yards. Similarly, a quarter mile is 440 yards. In both systems, a yard is smaller than a mile, but it is bigger than a half mile. Therefore, a quarter mile is 0.444 meters. The yard is shorter than a half-mile, so a quarter-mile is a kilometer is a third of a mile.

12-12-2021 · What do you include when calculating square footage of a house? Measure the length and width, in feet, of each room. Multiply the length by the width and write the total square footage of each room in the corresponding space on the home sketch. Example: If a bedroom is 12 feet by 20 feet, the total square footage is 240 square feet (12 x 20 = 240).

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What do you include when calculating square footage of a house?

Measure the length and width, in feet, of each room. Multiply the length by the width and write the total square footage of each room in the corresponding space on the home sketch. Example: If a bedroom is 12 feet by 20 feet, the total square footage is 240 square feet (12 x 20 = 240).

Does square footage include outside walls?

The standard practice calls for measuring square footage from your exterior walls, as opposed to measuring the actual interior dimensions of each room. This includes each wall as part of your square footage, although it obviously isn't usable space.

Are basements included in square footage of a house?

As a general rule of thumb, listing agents and appraisers don't count a finished basement toward the overall square footage, especially if the basement is completely below grade—a term that means below ground level. Whether an appraiser includes basement living space ultimately depends on which state you live in.

## Related Question What is included in square footage of a house?

### Are hallways included in square footage?

When an appraiser calculates the square footage of a home, it will only measure interior spaces that are heated and cooled. This includes bedrooms (and closets), bathrooms, hallways, kitchen, and living areas, as well as enclosed patios, and finished attics.

### Are stairs included in square footage?

Stairs: Runs/treads and landings both count in square footage totals. They are measured as a part of the floor “from which they descend,” so are generally counted twice in a typical two-story home with a basement.

### How do painters calculate square footage?

Painters calculate the square footage by multiplying the length of each room in your home by their corresponding width to determine the total amount of square footage in a particular space.

### Is a heated garage considered living space?

Builders are notorious for beefing up the 'square footage' of a home by including the garage and porches. They like to call it '4,200 square feet under roof'. Because garages, porches, decks, etc. are not considered living area and should never be listed as such.

### What is considered living area in a house?

The key word is "living." When calculating GLA, each space must be considered a living area. This definition includes bedrooms, bathrooms, kitchens, dining rooms and living rooms, per guidelines laid out by the American National Standard Institute (ANSI).

### Do walk out basements count as square footage?

A basement must have a legal ingress or egress to count as square footage. This is partially a safety issue. However, sometimes only the above-grade square footage of a walk-out basement is included in the home's total square footage.

### Does square footage of a house include all floors?

Any space that has walls, flooring, ceiling and heat would count as finished square footage.

### Does ceiling height affect square footage?

The square footage of a room is the total floor area of that room -- so a high ceiling, or height, plays no role.

### Is a screened porch included in square footage?

A porch is a great way to add livable square footage to your home. Though screened porches are typically not included in the appraised square footage of your home, they do add value.

### Does floor area include stairs?

What is included in gross floor area? This consists of the lobbies, area for tenants and common area, mechanical equipment areas, staircase, basement, laundry, storage rooms, restrooms and atriums.

### Does a laundry room count as square footage?

In most areas, any room with finished walls, a ceiling, and heating and/or air-conditioning is considered usable square footage. Even the closets are counted as part of the square footage inside the home, so the laundry room should be too.

### Is roof overhang included in square footage?

The area under roofs, eaves, overhangs, or similar projections which extend more than 2 feet beyond the exterior wall surface shall be presumed to create useable floor or building area and shall be include in the total calculated floor or building area.

### How do architects calculate square footage?

Then measure each rectangle using an architect's scale. Multiply the length times the width for each rectangle to get the area and then add up all of the rectangles to get the total square footage of the floor plan.

### Does open to below count as square footage?

Below grade spaces (basements, dens, etc.) do not usually count toward a home's square footage. The ANSI method specifies measuring from the exterior of the house, but the wall width is not usually subtracted to account for actual living space. Stairways and closet areas are included in the square footage length.

### Is square footage of a house measured inside or outside?

Calculations for the square footage of a home are taken from the outside dimensions of the structure (so exterior and interior wall thickness is included). If your home exterior is easily accessible, you can do it yourself with a 100-foot tape measure.

### How much does it cost to paint a 1200 sq ft house?

Paint Calculator Tip 3: Three gallon cans of paint cover up to 1200 square feet. This is enough to cover a large room or a couple of average-sized rooms adjoining each other. You may want to consider this extra can if you are doing a room with vaulted ceilings.

### How much does it cost to paint a 2500 sq ft house interior?

Across the US, the average cost to paint the interior of the house (2,500 sq. ft.) is ,300 – ,750 including all materials, paint, and professional labor. This is equivalent to .9 -.50 per square foot which is the most common dollar amount homeowners report spending on a professional painting job.

### How much interior paint do I need for a 2000 square foot house?

So, for 2000 square feet, you will likely need 5 gallons of interior house paint. For the top rated interior house paint, you can expect to pay anywhere between – per gallon.

### What adds more value to a house a garage or extra room?

We've found that most people value a garage more than an additional bedroom. The need for extra storage space along with the reality that most conversions aren't done very well leaves us converting about 90% back to garages.

### Does sunroom count as square footage?

Sunrooms usually don't get included in a home's square footage total, which appraisers use to help determine home values. But a full-room addition will add square footage to your home and has a higher return on investment.

### Is garage included in square footage when building a house?

A garage is not included in square footage calculation because it's not a finished living space.

### What is livable square footage?

When house plan sellers refer to Total Living square feet, they are referring to the “living area” of the home. This can be thought of as the area that will be heated or cooled. The total foot print the home will take up. This area includes garages, porches, patios, and any area under the main roof.

### Do basement bedrooms count on an appraisal?

Think of a basement bedroom as a bonus: It counts as a bedroom, but is identified separately from the above-grade room count in an appraisal. This space must meet basic living standards to earn the bedroom title, including: Windows with dimensions meeting your local building code.

### What is the average square footage of a 3 bedroom house?

The median size of new single-family homes sold in 2019 was 2,322 square feet, of which almost half had three bedrooms.

### Is garage included in floor area?

Attached garages should never be included in the total floor area of a house – garages are not living space. When talking about total floor area, we can count only the house and the addition – nothing else gets counted. If there is a basement, it doesn't get included because it's not above-ground.

### How much does it cost to build a 12x12 screened in porch?

Average Cost to Build a Screened-In Porch

The total costs to per square foot for materials, and per square foot for labor. If you want to build a completely new porch with screen, you'll pay to 0 per square foot for the entire project.

### Is a Florida room included in square footage?

Usually, a Florida room is left out of the total square footage – or Gross Pricing Area – when marketing a home for sale. However, by adding heating and cooling, it can then be included in the GPA.

### What is not included in FAR?

Unoccupied areas like parking garages, elevator shafts, and basements are not included in the calculation of a floor area ratio. The variation in population density, construction-related activities, growth patterns, and the nature of the building's space or land cause the FAR to vary.

### Does built up area include car porch?

If you consider to calculate the area for payment to contractor, yes it will be included but for Square feet calculations of covered area for municipal approval purpose, it will not be included. Total = Approx. 1380 sqft.

### Are walls included in floor area?

Gross floor area (GFA) in real estate is the total floor area inside the building envelope, including the external walls, and excluding the roof.

### Does square footage include balcony?

Typically, a balcony, terrace, or patio isn't included in the square footage calculations of a residence. For an area of a building to be 'counted', the traditional rule is that it must be fully enclosed, heated, and most importantly, liveable.

### Is a porch included in square footage of a shed?

Porches may only be included if they are enclosed and heated using the same system as the rest of house. If the garage is attached to the house, the shared wall will serve as the outside wall of the house when determining square footage.

### How do you find a livable area?

Measure the length and width of each room. Add 5 inches to each measurement to accommodate the interior, exterior and shared walls. Multiply each measurement to obtain the square footage of each interior room. Add all the square footage totals to obtain the total living area square footage.

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